Pathogenesis and Laboratory Diagnosis of Childhood Urinary Tract Infection

*Jharna Mandal

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India
*Correspondence to drjharna@gmail.com

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 07.01.16 Accepted: 08.02.16
Citation: EMJ Urol 2016;4[1]:101-107.

Abstract

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections of childhood. The clinical presentations are mostly non-specific or mild. As any episode of UTI can potentially damage the kidneys, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent renal damage. Incidence of UTI varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the child. UTIs in children are commonly caused by bacteria, though viruses, fungi, and parasites are also occasionally involved. The pathogenesis of UTI is complex where several host and pathogen factors influence the course of the disease and its outcome. Urine culture is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of UTI. The means of obtaining urine samples from children for culture involves urethral catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The conventional methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing are labour intensive and time exhaustive. With the advent of technology, many automated platforms are available which are rapid, involve less volume of the culture or the sample, and have high accuracy.

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