Nanomedicines for Increased Specificity and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

*Bruno Sarmento,1,2 Marco Sarmento3,4

1. Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S) and Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB), Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
2. Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde (CESPU) Instituto Universitário de Ciências da Saúde, Porto, Portugal
3. Faculdade de Medicina Universidade de Lisboa, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
4. Serviço de Ortopedia, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal
*Correspondence to bruno.sarmento@ineb.up.pt

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Acknowledgements: This work was financed by the Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) fund through the COMPETE 2020; Operacional Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI); Portugal 2020, Portuguese funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação in the framework of the project ‘Institute for Research and Innovation in Health Sciences,’ and of the project ‘Applied Biomolecular Sciences Unit’.
Received: 23.03.17 Accepted: 29.06.17
Citation: EMJ Rheumatol. 2017;4[1]:98-102.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most frequent chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, can lead to pain, bone and articular destruction, and limb deformity and impairment, with great impact on the activities of daily life. Several drug modifiers of the inflammatory process have been used in the treatment of the disease, all with specific patient targets and indications. However, the side effects are a frequent cause of undertreatment and non-adherence. To promote better compliance with the therapy, drug researchers have been trying to develop a new carrier of the immunomodulated molecules to increase their concentration in the target cell (mostly synovial), avoiding side effects for organs that are not targeted, as well as providing an easier manner of administration. The research results from animal models are promising and the clinical applications will show if these results are similarly impressive. This paper aims to explain the major applications of nanomedicine in RA treatment and diagnosis. The use of nanocarriers able to act as a diagnostic imaging agent and targeted drug delivery system, simultaneously, also known as nanotheranostics, can allow an improved efficacy and safety pharmacological profile, earlier detection, and thither monitoring of the disease.1 Commercial successes of RA active targeting of nanomedicine and products under development will be revised.

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