The Multifactorial Background of Emerging Viral Infections with Neurological Manifestation

Timothy G. Gaulton,1 *Glen N. Gaulton2

1. Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
2. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Center for Global Health, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
*Correspondence to

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 01.03.16 Accepted: 21.03.16
Citation: EMJ. 2016;1[2]:43-49.


The events of the past year have highlighted the continuing importance of emerging virus infections on the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disease. This review focusses on clarifying the effects of the multiple overlapping factors that impact emergence, including viral richness, transmission opportunity, and establishment. Case studies of the West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are utilised to illustrate the dramatic effects of expansion in the range and geographical distribution of emerging infectious disease, the acquisition of new virus vectors, and of increasing human anthropogenic factors such as global transport, climate change, and mosquito abatement programmes on the regional spread and clinical consequences of emerging infectious disease.

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