*Luca Di Lullo,1 Vincenzo Barbera,1 Antonio Bellasi,2 Mario Cozzolino,3 Antonio De Pascalis,4 Domenico Russo,5 Luigi Russo,5 Francesca Santoboni,1 Alberto Santoboni,1 Claudio Ronco6
1. Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi – Delfino Hospital, Colleferro, Rome, Italy
2. Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, S. Anna Hospital, Como, Italy
3. Department of Health Sciences, Renal Division, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
4. Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Lecce, Italy
5. Department of Public Health; Unit of Nephrology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
6. International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
*Correspondence to email@example.com
Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 30.11.15 Accepted: 20.05.16
Citation: EMJ Nephrol. 2016;4:84-91.
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality, with incidence of cardiac related mortality increasing as renal function declines. Even after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, age, gender, dyslipidaemia, and arterial hypertension, patients with CKD have a higher incidence of major cardiovascular events. CKD is characterised by the presence of many other non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, and especially, secondary hyperparathyroidism. This review will summarise the current evidence on vascular calcifications and valvular heart disease in CKD patients, from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategies.