Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion, a Review of Indications, Techniques, and Complications

*Maria-Cruz Ferrer-Gracia

Hospital ClĂ­nico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain
*Correspondence to

Disclosure: The author has declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 03.02.16 Accepted: 28.04.16
Citation: EMJ Int Cardiol. 2017;5[1]:85-95.


Percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains a challenging prospect for many interventional cardiologists. The treatment of these lesions is heterogeneous, as is the success rate. The aim of this review is to learn about how to approach these patients and lesions and discover the latest tendencies and research in interventional approaches in this field, as well as how to perform a useful pre-procedural approach, dual injection, lesion crossing, and modification to success. Finally, complications specific to CTO percutaneous intervention should be taken into account. Current guidelines, recommendations, and references to other significant articles which detail different aspects of management in patients with these complex lesions could be a useful guide for people beginning in this area. Algorithms of treatment, step approach, and proctoring are the current tendencies for CTO.

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