Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Part 3: Surgical and Medical Treatment

Lior Charach, Lior Zusmanovitch, *Gideon Charach

Department of Internal Medicine C Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
*Correspondence to drcharach@012.net.il

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 18.01.17 Accepted: 08.05.17
Citation: EMJ Hepatol. 2017;5[1]:89-96.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is variable and depends on the size, location, and presence of extra hepatic metastasis and vascular invasion. HCC treatment options have advanced significantly over the past few decades and include surgical and non-surgical methods. In the past, systemic chemotherapy was the non-surgical treatment and there was no significant increase in overall survival rate. Nowadays sorafenib, a molecular targeted drug, is the treatment of choice and has shown proven benefits in increasing survival time; other systemic therapies did not show longer statistical superiority. However, surgical treatments, such as liver transplantation and surgical resection, are still the only methods offering a curative opportunity; however, these are not free of adverse effects and recurrence of the tumour. Non-surgical techniques including ablative treatment, radiotherapy, transarterial chemoembolisation, and percutaneous ethanol injection also show some benefit in the survival of patients with HCC. Future molecular targeted drugs are currently under investigation in different stages of clinical trials, and there are positive expectations regarding their benefit in treating HCC.

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