Editor’s Pick: Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Part 1: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, and Pathology

Our Editor’s Pick for this edition of EMJ Hepatology is a tripartite paper by Charach et al.
encompassing hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a common cause of cancer-related death
in both men and women. This thorough review provides excellent detail on the development,
clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. It is worth a read for all those
looking to learn more about the current status of research in this field. Prof Markus Peck-Radosavljevic

Lior Charach, Lior Zusmanovitch, *Gideon Charach

Department of Internal Medicine C, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
*Correspondence to drcharach@012.net.il

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 18.01.2017 Accepted: 08.05.2017
Citation: EMJ Hepatol. 2017;5[1]:75-80.

Abstract

This review will cover the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and second most frequent cancer-related cause of mortality worldwide. In females, it is the seventh most frequently diagnosed malignancy and sixth leading cause of death. The incidence of HCC is higher among males in less developed countries and reaches a peak around the age of 70 years. The rates of liver cancer are twice as high in males compared to females.1,2 Various risk factors, including environmental, infectious, nutritional, and metabolic, are associated with HCC; among them viral infection has been linked to being the highest risk factor for developing HCC.

HCC is a highly vascular tumour and its pathogenesis consists of increasing angiogenesis by overexpression of various growth factors. Another cause of HCC development is thought to be mutations in different signalling pathways that lead to proliferation of the tumour cells.

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