Nutritional Deficiency After Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Comprehensive Literature Review

*Sameh Hany Emile, Hossam Elfeki

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
*Correspondence to

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 12.06.17 Accepted: 30.10.17
Citation: EMJ Gastroenterol. 2017;6[1]:99-105.


Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been recognised as an effective procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and associated comorbidities; however, the shortcomings of SG, such as staple line leak, haemorrhage, vomiting, and weight regain, have also been well-reported. An underestimated adverse effect of SG is nutritional deficiency (ND). While ND is a well-known complication of malabsorptive bariatric procedures, it can still occur after restrictive operations, including SG, yet its incidence and mechanism are still unclear. In an attempt to learn about the incidence and type of ND after SG we performed an organised literature search of electronic databases searching for articles that assessed the incidence and type of ND after SG. The median incidence of iron and zinc deficiency after SG was 8.8% and 18.8%, respectively. The majority of patients already had vitamin D deficiency preoperatively, with a median of 35.5% of patients still demonstrating vitamin D deficiency postoperatively. Comparing ND before and after SG, the incidence of iron and vitamin D deficiency declined postoperatively; in contrast, there was a tangible increase in the incidence of vitamin B1, B6, B12, and calcium deficiency. Vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies were recorded in a median of 10.0% and 11.7% of patients, respectively, and were associated with neurologic manifestations in <1% of patients. Prevention of ND after SG requires proper recognition and correction of preoperative ND with immediate supplementation of trace elements and vitamins postoperatively, in addition to long follow-up.

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