In Search of Biomarkers in Eosinophilic Oesophagitis: We Are Not There Yet!

Neeti Bhardwaj,1 *Gisoo Ghaffari2

1. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Pennsylvania College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
2. Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care Medicine, Pennsylvania College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
*Correspondence to gghaffari@hmc.psu.edu.

Disclosure: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Received: 23.03.16 Accepted: 22.06.16
Citation: EMJ Allergy Immunol. 2016;1[1]:66-73.

Abstract

Background: Eosiniphilic oesophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disease with a complex pathophysiology. The accepted standard for objectively monitoring inflammation associated with this disorder is the number of eosinophils in oesophageal tissue biopsies obtained endoscopically. There is a need for alternative biomarkers that effectively correlate with disease activity and can hopefully be obtained non-invasively. The aim of this study is to review the literature on various biomarkers of EoE, with respect to their correlation to disease activity and response to treatment.

Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and OVID with keyword combinations of EoE and various potential biomarkers. Between 2006 and 2015, 39 studies that investigated the correlation of various tissue and serum biomarkers with EoE disease were identified.

Results: A number of candidates have emerged as potential biomarkers of inflammation in EoE. Eotaxin-3, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, microRNAs, and mast cell mediators have shown the most promise. Studies on these markers are quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, with use of invasively as well as non-invasively obtained specimens.

Conclusion: The quest for an ideal biomarker for EoE continues. Establishment of normal values, effects of concomitant atopic diseases, age and gender, and validation of methodology of the tests are some of the challenges that future research should address.

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